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May 4, 2016

Let’s think about time

Editor’s Note: Breanna Higgins is a former teacher and spring intern at CPE

Let’s start to think about time and realistic timelines for how long reform and school improvement really takes. This era of accountability expects superintendents to turnaround failing schools, or even whole districts, within a couple years. Each new innovative reform or program is expected to be the next great thing- often districts implement several new programs at the same time to increase the potential for success.

Instant gratification- instant improvement. Superintendents and school and district leaders want to see test scores rise instantly and show that their reforms worked. Unfortunately, this rarely happens. Test scores sometimes rise, but then flat line again quickly. It’s not necessarily because the reform didn’t work— it’s just that we need to be patient.

We need to devote years to strong and faithful implementation. Teachers need to be trained- in more than the week before school- in how to use the new programs. Teachers also need time to figure out how to teach effectively with these new changes and it will take years for teachers to become proficient in a new system. Teachers see reforms come and go so quickly that the “this too shall pass” mentality is not just a line- it is very real. Teachers don’t feel the need to become heavily invested in a new reform or program when they know it will be changed out again in a year or two.

A district that truly commits to a reform needs to commit long term. The reform needs to be rolled out in stages and implemented carefully. Timelines and hopes for seeing success should be realistic. Teachers are the main element of any reform and if they do not believe in the program, or believe it will be around long enough for them to care, it won’t have much of an impact. By committing to long-term action, teachers have time to adjust and see changes in the classroom and they are able to commit to a program that they see the district has committed to. The district needs to be willing to take the time to ride out the ups and downs of a reform. Some experts in school reform believe it takes five years simply to fully implement a new reform and that achievement results will follow from there.

School improvement takes time. Policymakers and communities need to be patient and allow reforms to be implemented well, and slowly, to see real improvement. A new program every year only ensures that most people “on the ground” will ignore it.

Filed under: Accountability,CPE,Public education,School boards — Breanna Higgins @ 3:15 pm





April 28, 2016

12th graders’ math scores drop, reading flatlines

And just when we had allowed ourselves to get giddy over record-shattering high school graduation rates.

NAEP, also known as the Nation’s Report card, released the results of its 2015 assessment of high school seniors’ math and reading proficiency. Like their 4th and 8th grade schoolmates, whose 2015 scores were published last fall, the nation’s 12th-graders either made no progress or dropped a few points, especially in mathematics. Worse, scores for the lowest performers fell the most in both subjects.

Let’s start with reading. The overall score was 1 point lower on the NAEP scale from two years ago, which is not a statistically significant change. However, 12th graders are performing 5 points lower compared to their peers in 1992, the first year the main-NAEP reading assessment was administered.

There was no noticeable change since 2013 in the scores of any racial/ethnic group, or in the achievement gaps between them.

Indeed, the biggest change was at the bottom. In just the last two years, the proportion of students who did not even read at the basic level grew, from 25 to 28 percent.  What this means in more tangible terms is that this group of soon-to-be-graduates cannot recognize the main purpose of expository text; cannot recognize the main purpose of an argument; and cannot explain a character’s action from a story description.

The math picture isn’t any rosier. The overall math score fell a significant 3 points on the NAEP scale. While this is still 2 points higher than in 2005 – the first administration of the test’s new math framework – it does represent a reversal after years of steady gains. As with reading, the math scores were relatively flat for every racial/ethnic group compared to 2013. One happy exception: scores for English language learners rose by 4 points.

Math also saw an increase of the wrong kind. A whopping 38 percent of high school seniors did not perform at the basic level in 2015, an increase of 3 points over 2013. This is troubling on its own merits. It is truly baffling when considering that 90 percent of seniors reported having taken Algebra II or a higher math course in high school.  We should see this group of low performers shrinking, not growing larger.

Of high interest to education policymakers and parents is the degree to which 12th graders are prepared for college work. Beginning in 2008, the National Assessment Governing Board, which oversees NAEP, commissioned several studies linking NAEP performance levels to college readiness. Based on the analysis, just slightly more than a third of seniors in 2015 scored at a level showing they had the knowledge and skills needed to succeed in freshmen courses. But ready or not, two-thirds of them will be bound for two- and four-year colleges the October following graduation.

Why is this happening? Many advocates have been quick to point to policies like Common Core, too much testing, not enough testing, or whatever other bee sticks in their bonnets. But as I have written elsewhere, there is not enough information at this point to lay the blame on any one of these, although they surely warrant watching. Likewise, some observers have noted the increase in childhood poverty, which also deserves attention.

I think another explanation might be found in one of our great successes. High school graduation rates have exploded in just the last 10 years. In 2013, 81 percent of all high school students graduated within four years. We know from research that failing grades are high risk factors for students. Up until recently, these low performers would have dropped out before showing up in the NAEP data as seniors. The fact that they are still in school is a good thing, but it may also be dragging 12th grade scores down.

The truth is, it’s too soon for us to know for sure why this happened. But there are enough questions that schools should be examining to get us back on the right track.

  • Do the high-level courses students are taking in larger numbers actually represent high-level content?
  • Do schools have enough counselors and other trained professionals to not just make sure students stay in school, but have the support they need to perform academically?
  • Are teachers also supported as they implement higher standards in their classrooms?
  • Finally, are federal, state and local policymakers providing the resources high schools need to assure every student graduates ready to succeed in college, careers and life?
Filed under: Assessments,CPE,High school,NAEP,Reading,Testing — Tags: , — Patte Barth @ 10:52 am





April 14, 2016

What’s different about ESSA?

What’s Different about ESSA?

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) created the starting point for equity-based education reforms. It established categorical aid programs for specific subgroups that were at-risk of low academic achievement. “Title I” comes from this act- it created programs to improve education for low-income students. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was a reauthorization of ESEA which gave more power to the federal government to ensure that all students received an equitable education and that standardized testing was the vehicle to assess high-standards for schools.

In 2015, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) again reauthorized ESEA and changed much of the language and policies of NCLB. At its foundation, the law gave a lot of decision-making power back to the states. Although state’s still need to have high-standards, test their students, and intervene in low-performing schools, the state’s themselves will have the power to determine the “how”.

This table below provides the key differences between NCLB and ESSA and was compiled from several sources (listed at the bottom) which provide a great deal more detail and specifics for those interested in learning more.

 

ESSA Table

 

-Breanna Higgins

 

Sources:

http://www.ncesd.org/cms/lib4/WA01000834/Centricity/Domain/52/GeneralNCLB%20vs%20ESSA%20Comparison%20-%20Title%20I-Federl%20Programs.pdf

http://neatoday.org/2015/12/09/every-student-succeeds-act/

http://all4ed.org/essa/

http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/siteASCD/policy/ESEA_NCLB_ComparisonChart_2015.pdf

Filed under: Accountability,CPE,ESSA — Tags: , — Breanna Higgins @ 1:10 pm





March 18, 2016

Improving civics education is key to strong, equitable democracy

While the constant news coverage and interest in the presidential campaign might suggest Americans are well-versed in our country’s political process, data from the latest civics assessment of NAEP, colloquially known as the Nation’s Report Card, finds otherwise.

Indeed, the results show that there is not only a widespread lack of civic knowledge, but it is especially pronounced among minority students.

Administered on a rotating basis to fourth, eighth and 12th-grade students from participating schools, the data from the last Civics Assessment for 12th- graders show that 62% of African American students have a below basic knowledge of civics, and only 8% are at or above proficient. Meanwhile, 50% of Hispanic students possess below basic knowledge of civics, with 13% are at or above proficient.

What kind of knowledge gaps are we talking about?

Based on the sample questions in the NAEP assessment, most minority students in eighth-grade cannot name a right protected by the First Amendment, while most 12th-grade minority students cannot explain the meaning of a Supreme Court opinion. A mere 3% of 12th-graders nationally knew that the Supreme Court could use judicial review to preserve the rights of minorities.

Conversely, white students are performing better on each aspect of the civics exam, creating a civic engagement gap that is important for the nation to address. Democracy cannot be fully realized when citizens do not recognize how the government works and their own ability to make change. Research shows that civic learning corresponds to an increase in students’ civic participation and likelihood of voting. Building a civic identity in students will increase their sense of empowerment over their lives and the direction of their communities.

An unintended consequence of recent policies pushing for achievement and excellence in reading and math is that there is less time in the curriculum for other subjects. Science and social studies are often sidelined to increase time in English and math courses. Seventy-one percent of districts have cut back on time dedicated to subjects other than math and English— the largest cut coming from social studies. This has meant that civics education is not valued as much as courses that will prepare students for standardized testing. Civics education is vital for all students so that they are able to participate in democracy and engage the community in a meaningful way.

A great danger for the future of the United States is that we are educating a citizenry that does not understand how to have a voice in politics, how the government of the United States operates, or how to enact change and influence in their communities; particularly among poor and minority populations.

While it is important that students continue to have strong content knowledge in English and math, it must also make time in the curriculum for civics education. Civics courses will complement English and math courses as it requires students to read, think critically, write, and analyze charts, graphs and data. Further, students who feel empowered to change their communities and circumstances and receive instruction that is relevant to their lives become more engaged in school which could lead to higher performance in all subjects.

It is imperative that all students learn how to participate in a democracy and then create change in their communities in a civically responsible manner. A civics course that requires students to learn how the United States government works as well as how to be active, politically-engaged citizens must be included in public school curricula.  -Breanna Higgins

Filed under: 21st century education,CPE,First Amendment,NAEP — Tags: , — Breanna Higgins @ 7:00 am





March 4, 2016

Teacher evaluation systems: Major changes, similar results

Since TNTP’s  groundbreaking report, The Widget Effect, was released in 2009, nearly every state has made dramatic changes to the way teachers are evaluated. In that report the authors found less than 1 percent of teachers were rated below proficient, while nearly all other teachers were rated simply as proficient or satisfactory. Just a small proportion of teachers were recognized for being exceptional. Such results didn’t pass the sniff test. As anyone who has ever stepped foot in a classroom knows, there are a number of exceptional teachers as well as a number who just aren’t making the grade. Under previous teacher evaluation systems, few of these teachers were ever identified.

Despite the dramatic changes in evaluation, such as including measures of student achievement, not much has changed, according to a recent report aptly titled Revisiting the Widget Effect. Less than 3 percent of teachers are being rated below proficient. While this is more than 3 times as many teachers than found in the original Widget Effect, it is still an extremely small number.

Of course, it could be claimed that this is because there are so few ineffective teachers and not due to a failure of how teachers are evaluated. Which is a legitimate argument. In fact, this was a question the authors wanted to examine themselves by asking principals in a sample of schools how many of their teachers they felt were below proficient prior to conducting the new evaluation systems. What they found was a huge disconnect between how many teachers principals perceived to be less than proficient (27 percent) and how many teachers actually were rated below proficient (2.7 percent).

So why are so few teachers identified below proficient? Did states expend valuable time and resources simply to rate a few more teachers as ineffective? While the findings from this report are sobering, it provides important insights for policymakers in making changes to the current systems and understanding how the system is really being used at the ground level. What was fascinating is what principals said about why they didn’t rate some teachers as below proficient.  For example, some principals reported not assigning a below proficient rating to some teachers who were on the borderline because they felt their time was better spent focusing on providing extra supports to the lowest performing teachers. Other principals stated they avoided rating teachers below proficient who showed potential to be effective teachers in the future. While technically these teachers should have received poor ratings, these are actions good supervisors should take to build an effective staff.

Yet, these are examples of why it is imperative to include objective measures of effectiveness in any teacher evaluation system. States now have more flexibility in designing their own evaluation systems with the passage of the federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). They should include objective measures such as student test scores in their revised evaluations. Doing so still provides an opportunity for evaluators, such as the principals in this report, to focus their time and resources on the teachers that need them most. At the same time it lessens the chances evaluators will simply identify nearly all teachers as proficient because it is just easier to do so just as it was prior to 2009 in most states.

What states need to do now is find a proper balance between objective measures and trusting the professional judgment of evaluators, especially principals, who know what is best for the teachers and the students in that school. As the report shows, states have not yet found that right balance. Keep in mind, however, these new teacher evaluation systems are still quite new and will take some time to make the adjustments needed to have a significant positive impact on both teachers and students. – Jim Hull

Filed under: Teacher evaluation,teachers — Jim Hull @ 2:52 pm





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