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March 27, 2015

One in six chance you won’t get funding for child care

In an issue report authored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), federal child care subsidies were vastly underused in fiscal year 2011. The report found that of the population of children eligible (i.e., 14.3 million in 2011), 83 percent did not receive federal assistance. That translates into just shy of 12 million children (11.8 million) who did not receive financial support to attend child care. In terms of state assistance, the numbers and percentages are only slightly better. Of the 8.4 million children who were eligible to receive child care subsidies under state rules (which can be, and often are, more restrictive than the federal eligibility parameters), only 29% did so (i.e., 71% or 5.96 million children did not receive child care subsidies).

The numbers can continue to be shocking. Here are some other trends reported within the ASPE brief. First, analyses reveal that amongst children from families between 150% and 199% of the federal poverty limit (for 2011), 96% of these families were not served.

Another finding from the 2011 data reveals that the older the child, the less likely they were to receive a subsidy. Moreover, children ages 10 to 12 were more than four times as likely to not receive child care subsidies compared to children ages 0 to 5. This was also true for 6- to 9-year-olds, who were half as likely to have received a child care subsidy compared to those younger (yet still twice as likely as the 10- to 12-year-olds)!

Provided as an appendix to the report, some background information is provided on this sample of children and their families. Included in this table, are the numbers of families with parents employed for 20 or more hours a month and you can compare this across age ranges. Looking at the total sample, 84% of all eligible families fell into the highest category of employment yet, of this same sample of working families, only 1 in 5 of them received child care subsidies.

Although we would not expect that the same 84% of working eligible families is the same group as the families who did not receive any child care assistance, but clearly there is a big disconnect somewhere in the system. One would suspect that the families who are working as much as possible would be those that need child care (let alone financial assistance for it) the most. Moreover, children (and families) living in poverty are already more likely to face enormous obstacles and as positioned for in our “Changing Demographics of the United States and their Schools” article, these children can especially benefit from programs such as preschool and participation can lead to fewer behavior problems and reduce the likelihood of school expulsion later in their academic career. This misalignment of need and services is unsettling and will be something that we should continue to monitor for change. – David Ferrier






February 9, 2015

High-quality preschool reduces later special education placement

A recent study released on Tuesday shows that children who attended high-quality preschools in North Carolina were significantly less likely to require special education services in the third grade. These findings were from a longitudinal study following children from at-risk families from birth to the end of third grade. Two programs, More at Four and Smart Start, both publicly funded programs in North Carolina, aim to provide high-quality child care to 4-year-olds living in poverty and to improve the quality and delivery of child care and preschool services for children from birth to 5, respectively. The focus on this developmental period of life is reflective of much developmental research showing that significant cognitive, social, and emotional development occurs across this timeframe and thus, it is a critical period to support. Furthermore, educational psychologist Jeffrey Liew highlights that cognitive and social-emotional development in early childhood can be heavily influenced by teaching efforts targeting those skills.

These findings evidence the importance of a high-quality early childhood education. Between the years 1997 and 2010, over 127,000 students were serviced by the North Carolina preschool programs. As reported in Thinking P-12: The school board role in pre-k education, appropriate class sizes, teacher qualifications, and teacher training, among others, constitute markers that differentiate low from high-quality programming.

Although the results from this study are encouraging, it is important for readers to not misinterpret the results. Furthermore, the study uses maternal education (at time of the childbirth) as a proxy for socioeconomic status (SES). While maternal education is an indicator of SES, the inclusion of additional at-risk markers, such as household income and whether or not the parent(s) are employed typically provides a more comprehensive picture.

That high-quality education in preschool reduced special education placement years later in third grade just reinforces the many reasons why addressing issues early can benefit children throughout life. Similar to the foundation of a house, early childhood represents the bedrock of development; when this foundation is built poorly or weakened for whatever reason (e.g., toxic stress, poverty, neglect), the integrity of the entire building is at risk. Through the implementation of high-quality education, these positive experiences can help to “repair the cracks.” As reported in our Research on Pre-K, children who are able to attend high-quality preschool programs, like the High/Scope Perry Preschool program, for example, tend to graduate high school, demonstrate higher achievement at age 14, and earn more income at age 40 compared to those who did not attend similar pre-kindergarten programs.

In conclusion, this study reinforces what we already know: high-quality early childhood education is one of the best ways to support optimal development. This study highlights that when cognitive, social, and emotional problems are addressed early through, children can stand to benefit the most before special education is required.

Filed under: Pre-k,preschool,research,special education — Tags: , , — David Ferrier @ 4:29 pm





December 19, 2014

The ROI of five ed reforms, according to Forbes

Many have tried to quantify the value of education— in fact, even we did in our video, Is it Worth It? But calculating what we get versus what we spend on public education is far from an easy exercise, as there are so many variables and value judgments that come into play.

Enter Forbes magazine, which attempted to determine what would happen if education policymakers put their money where their mouth is in five key areas: implementing the Common Core State Standards, strengthening teacher effectiveness and principal development, and expanding early education and blended learning.

Each comes with a hefty price tag that taken together would cost a cool $6.2 trillion over a 20 year period or $310 billion annually. In return, Forbes (with assistance from respected Stanford economist Eric Hanushek) predicts the U.S. would see its gross domestic product increase by some $225 trillion over the life of that generation’s professional career.

Where the initial outlay would come from— apparently hedge funds, inheritances and venture capital— is another story. What caught my attention about this study appeared to be a credible attempt to affix real dollars and cents to top education reforms and the benefits our country would reap from it.  Even if it’s hypothetical, a nearly 37 percent return on five major education investments is not something to ignore … though, apparently we have.






May 16, 2014

State of Preschool 2013: Enrollment drops, but quality rises

Earlier this week, the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) at Rutgers University released its annual State Preschool Yearbook for the 2012-2013 school year, which offered both some good and bad news regarding preschool enrollment, funding, and quality.

For the first time since NIEER began reporting on preschool trends in 2001-2002, there was a decline in enrollment. Over 9,200 fewer three and four-year-olds were enrolled during 2012-2013 than during 2011-2012. The state-by-state analysis shows that 20 states increased enrollment during this time period while 11 states saw their enrollment decline, however, the states with declining enrollment tended to be much more populous states, such as California.

When adjusted for inflation, state funding for pre-K increased by $30.6 million in 2012-2013. Although this does not make up for the massive cuts that took place during the previous school year, this increase combined with declining enrollment resulted in a $36 increase in state spending per student. Per pupil spending varied greatly between the 40 states (plus D.C.) that offer state pre-K. Nebraska and South Carolina each spend less than $2,000 per child, while D.C. spends over $14,000 and New Jersey over $12,000 per child.

While progress has stalled or regressed in some areas, many states improved the quality of their pre-K programs based on the NIEER’s Quality Standards Benchmarks. These benchmarks measure quality based on factors such as class size, standards, teacher’s level of education and specialization in early childhood, and student-teacher ratio. For the first time, all state-funded pre-K programs (53 total) used comprehensive early learning standards. Four states, as well as, one of the three programs in Louisiana, met all 10 of NIEER’s benchmarks. Meanwhile, 16 states met eight or more of the benchmarks.

Overall, preschool saw some successes and faced some struggles this year. The decline in enrollment, although modest, is somewhat surprising given the increased attention that policymakers have been paying to early education initiatives. It will be interesting to see what enrollment numbers look like in the coming years. However, this modest enrollment decrease also represents a pause in the trend toward spreading little funding over more and more students each year, which expanded access but jeopardized quality in recent years. Quality is an area where things are looking up. Although there is still a lot of work to be done in meeting all of NIEER’s benchmarks, the progress that has been made over the last decade is promising and most programs are continuously working to improve the quality of pre-K education they offer.

For more information about the impact high quality prekindergarten can have on students check out CPE’s Pre-K research here.

-Patricia Campbell






March 20, 2014

Could math be the key to successful prekindergarten?

apple_and_slateboardPrekindergarten has been a hot topic in education for some time now, and with the White House proposing $1.3 billion for Preschool for All grants in the 2015 budget, it is unlikely to go away anytime soon. Various studies have shown the long-term benefits that pre-K can have for children, especially those from low- and moderate-income families. However, many of the studies we continue to cite today as evidence of pre-K’s effectiveness (such as the HighScope Perry Preschool and the Abecedarian Project) are decades old and focus on extremely small and intensive programs. Although these programs clearly illustrate the positive impacts that high-quality prekindergarten can have on children well into the future, they do not single out specific elements made these programs successful.  Furthermore, programs such as these would not be scalable today with how rapidly pre-K programs are expanding in many states.

A new study starting in New York this year hopes to determine what factors contribute to high-quality pre-K programs. “Making Pre-K Count” is following approximately 4,000 prekindergarten students at 69 different school sites throughout New York City and will continue to follow them at least through third grade. Half of the students will be taught using a math curriculum called Building Blocks, which has shown in short-term studies to improve the math and verbal skills of young children. Math is not something that is traditionally emphasized in prekindergarten classes, but some research indicates that developing math skills early can predict math and reading achievement well into elementary school, as well as help students learn to persevere academically. Children who maintain these early math skills are also more likely to graduate from high school and pursue a postsecondary education. There is also a professional development piece to the Building Blocks curriculum, with teaching coaches visiting prekindergarten classes weekly to help teachers implement the curriculum and advise them on the use of formative assessments

While we know there are benefits to high-quality prekindergarten, there has been much debate recently about what “high-quality” actually means.  The rapid expansion of pre-K programs throughout the country makes more up to date research on what types of programs are effective a necessity. A study like Making Pre-K Count will surely be expensive and time consuming, but has the potential to lead to some real breakthroughs on what an effective, scalable prekindergarten model looks like in the 21st century.

For more information about the impact high quality prekindergarten can have on students check out CPE’s Pre-K research here.

-Patricia Campbell

Filed under: CPE,Pre-k,research — Tags: , — Patricia Campbell @ 1:16 pm





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